Health, Work and Wellbeing Network

Bringing together people interested in health, work and wellbeing research

Researcher: Karina Nielsen, The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark
Funder: The work environment research fund, Denmark
Date: 2005-2008

Aims: To explore the effects of management training on team functioning, health and well-being of managers and employees.


  • To acquire knowledge with respect to how team structures and management style influence the working environment and the well-being of employees
  • To educate and support managers in creating well-functioning teams, a better working environment and healthy and satisfied managers and employees
  • To evaluate the effects of management training
  • To evaluate manager initiated interventions

Design: 60 team managers and their teams, 30 from the health care sector. 30 from the private sector. Managers from each sector were randomised into two groups. Both groups completed the questionnaires and managers participated in ESM. Half the managers from each organisation participated in management training, the remainder constituted the control group. The structure of the course was based on a manual prepared in collaboration between researchers and experienced OHP practitioners. The manual was based on the latest research on team structures and management style. The outcomes of the study are evaluated with a baseline and an 18- months follow-up.

  • Experience Sampling Method (ESM): ESM used repeated measurements by short questionnaires (in total 25 questions).
  • Questionnaire: The project consisted of two waves of questionnaire studies. Questionnaires were distributed to both managers and team members.
  • Observations: Training courses were observed focusing on managers‘ development and progress.
  • Interview: Group interviews and semi-structured interviews are performed with managers and employees.

Nielsen, K., Yarker, J., Brenner, S.-O., Randall, R. and Borg, V. (2008) Leadership style, work characteristics and well-being. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63: 465-475

Nielsen, K., Randall, R., Yarker, J. and Brenner, S-O. (2008) The effects of transformational leadership on followers’ working conditions and well- being. Work & Stress, 22 (1): 16-32

Munir, F. and Nielsen, K. (2009) Does self-efficacy mediate the relationship between transformational leadership behaviours and healthcare workers‘ sleep quality? A longitudinal field study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65: 1833-1843

Randall, R., Nielsen, K. and Tvedt, S. D. (2009) The development of 5 scales to measure participants‘ appraisal of organizational-level stress management interventions. Work & Stress, 23 (1): 1,-23.

Nielsen, K., Yarker, J., Randall, R. & Munir, F. (2009).The mediating effects of team and self-efficacy on the relationship between transformational leadership, and job satisfaction and psychological well- being in healthcare professionals: A cross-sectional questionnaire study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46: 1236-1244

Munir, F., Nielsen, K. and Gomes, Carneiro, I. (2009) Transformational leadership and depressive symptoms: A prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125: 235-239

Nielsen, K. and Randall, R. (2009) Managers’ Active Support when Implementing Teams: The Impact on Employee Well-Being. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being. 1 (3): 374-390

Nielsen, K. and Cleal, B. (2010) Predicting flow at work: Investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15 (2): 180-190

Nielsen, K., Randall, R. and Christensen, K.B. (2010) Does training managers enhance the effects of implementing team-working? A longitudinal, mixed methods field study. Human Relations, 63 (11): 1719-1741

Nielsen, K. & Cleal, B (2011). Under which conditions do middle managers exhibit transformational leadership behaviours? – An Experience Sampling Method study on the predictors of transformational leadership behaviours. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(2): 344-352